Search This article reviews the evidence for the medieval performance of the Cantigas de Santa Maria CSM and discusses King Alfonso's intentions for the work, including the intended audience.
The CSM were conceived as an ambitious cultural enterprise with both religious and political objectives, but were doomed to failure by the steep political decline of their creator. The only surviving evidence for the CSM's presence in any court outside Alfonso's is the Barbieri MS, an eighteenth-century descendant of a lost original, plausibly transmitted to the Portuguese court before Other traces of performative use are rubrics and marginal notes in an appendix to manuscript To and their corresponding reworking in manuscript E, which point to short-lived ritual use.
Internal iconographical, literary, and compositional evidence suggests that Alfonso did intend the CSM to circulate among a broad range of social classes. He manipulated poetic and metrical forms from the troubadour tradition to highlight the dignity of the Virgin Mary, but he privileged Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria directly inspired by the Andalusian zajal familiar to popular audiences and among the minstrels, to encourage the penetration of his songs beyond his courtly circle.
The CSM were meant to consolidate Christian restoration in the recently conquered southern territories, but also to serve as personal and dynastic propaganda, asserting Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria author's royal supremacy over Castilian lords, his preeminence among Iberian kings, and his status as the Christian monarch most worthy Whores in Sandy Lake, Manitoba the office of Holy Roman emperor.
Musicologists have also begun to Beautiful women want casual sex Douglas the Cantigas for what they are: a monument of devotional song crossing lyrical and narrative genres, and aristocratic and urban contexts; a testimony to the courtly confluence of northern and southern, Christian and Islamic cultures; a pioneering experiment in the notation of patterned meter beyond the narrow limits of the French rhythmic modes; and a unique witness to Adult seeking real sex Chappells SouthCarolina 29037 richness and variety of urban refrain-songs—in short, one of the most impressive European musical achievements of the thirteenth century, or indeed of the whole medieval era.
But in their own time the Cantigas were virtually ignored. They remained a brilliant but isolated narrative and musical accomplishment. This disparity still perplexes modern scholars. What prevented the Cantigas, at the apex of Marian devotion, from enjoying lasting success? The southernmost territories of King Alfonso's domains had been freshly conquered by the Christian armies, and Islamic culture Sexy wives seeking hot sex Minneapolis retained a ificant presence and prestige.
In spite of their Christian outlook and Romance language, the Cantigas were in fact a Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria product that, in connection with the royal program of Christian restoration in the south, attempted to bridge social divisions by adopting a typical Arabic-Andalusian song form, the zajal, as Discriminate dating agency model.
The Cantigas, being indissolubly associated with the self-image, ideology, and ambitions of King Alfonso, were also conceived as a means of affirming and propagating his exceptional authority in both Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria and religious matters. The whole project was thus overtly political. This, I propose, is the clue to its intriguing medieval fate. In this article I review the evidence for the medieval performance of the Cantigas de Santa Maria, both courtly and ritual, consider their creator's intentions for Adult seeking nsa Birmingham Alabama 35204 work, including the Sex in Beach tonight audience, and argue that the Cantigas came into being as an ambitious cultural enterprise, but were doomed to failure by the steep decline of the political prospects of their author, first on the European stage and then on the national one.
I offer a wide-ranging discussion of references to lost and extant manuscripts and their functions, in an attempt to illuminate pathways for the circulation and performance of their Find friends. I reconsider and analyze the Barbieri MS, virtually ignored by modern scholarship, taking into the relationships between the Alfonsine court and its Portuguese counterpart.
A critical discussion of the competing views of Keller, Griffiths, and Fidalgo concerning the intended audience for the Cantigas opens the way to considering the role of local minstrels, the constraints posed by the Galician-Portuguese language, and the opportunities provided by the Andalusian zajal form. He eventually broadened the project into a much larger, and Sex lines 69878 historiated, kind of book, expanded the collection with new songs, and supported an ambitious program of manuscript illumination, encompassing more than full- illustrations—besides those lost or left incomplete, forty Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria portraying musical instruments, and a few isolated scenes.
The finished collection Naughty wives want casual sex Detroit copied in the same courtly environment if not in the same scriptorium into four large thirteenth-century manuscripts that are extant today.
Where, when, how, and for whom were the songs read, sung, or otherwise performed?
Performative use can be ruled out at the outset for the manuscript now kept in Florence F ; it was left unfinished and the music was never entered. Another book To —formerly in Toledo, now in Madrid—corresponds to the earliest stage of compilation to which we have direct access, with one hundred cantigas plus appendices; it features a unique, semi-mensural kind of musical notation. The remaining two, formerly Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria Seville, have been kept at the Royal Monastery of El Escorial sinceand have a more international, even if nonstandard, kind of mensural notation.
In fact, they are the outcome of one of the most ambitious and expensive editorial projects ever launched in Bbw wife looking for men Cherry Creek New York Europe. The nearly perfect state of conservation of these books implies that few people turned their s, and infrequently. The twin volumes T and F probably entered the royal library only a few decades after being deposited at the cathedral in Seville ca.
Women looking nsa Haswell of use seems the likeliest explanation for the lack of further copies. This monumental song Ladies seeking sex Leighton Alabama was apparently forgotten as soon as he died, or shortly.
Serious interest d in the late sixteenth century among scholars whose concerns were mainly historical and literary. He assumed that Alfonso's book had been innovative in presenting vernacular songs with music, and suggested Arabic influence as a possible reason.
The CSM entered the realm of historical Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria with the publication in of the first volume of a history of Spanish music written by Mariano Soriano Fuertes.
The author describes the notated thirteenth-century manuscripts, but in fact takes his examples of songs from the CSM from an eighteenth-century source.
By comparison with their modern notoriety, the medieval circulation of the CSM was severely limited. This article will ask what can be ascertained about the medieval echo of Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria CSM, however quiet it may have. The absence of historical records attesting use of the collection by specific agents, and the established fact that the extant medieval manuscripts Women seeking casual sex Frankford Delaware not directly used for performance purposes, still leave open the possibility of investigating other kinds of traces, both external and internal.
This is no easy matter, since evidence is scarce and its interpretation often Juneau women who want to fuck. Documentary evidence of early circulation in both courtly and clerical environments will first be examined, and then internal iconographical, literary, and compositional data will be considered in order to determine how the CSM were intended to be used, by what kinds of people, and for what purposes.
Finally, the CSM will be placed within the larger cultural and political context of the reign of Alfonso X, in the light of which it Bbc for Ballina wife be suggested that Alfonso, the author and compiler, had much more ambitious literary aspirations than he was able to realize, and that the relative obscurity of the CSM was inextricably linked to the political failure of the monarch who created.
Early Circulation: The Courtly Environment Sources directly attesting the reception of the CSM in Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria circles are few and far between, and almost mute. Circulation beyond the regal holdings seems to have been severely limited; the few known instances, all related to Portugal, may have at their root close political and family ties with Portuguese royalty.
We do not know, however, whether one or both songs were part of the original Free sex tonight phone Rancho Cordova, or added to it at an unknown date or place.
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This book, which he attributes to King Dinis but which could merely have been owned by himhas since disappeared. Later, however, he changed his mind, for in the meantime he had become aware of a late eighteenth-century gathering now in the Barbieri collection at Madrid that contains Tower city ND milf personals of CSM new melodynew melody2, 10, 17, 6, 67, and 28, in this order.
Photograph by the author.
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The connection must also be indirect, since the Barbieri MS was copied in a single run by a Real Uppsala girls fucking professional, which is incompatible with simultaneous artistic remodeling of its contents; this implies that the stylistic adaptation of the medieval songs in its first section predates the copy.
It is nonetheless likely that the first section of the manuscript depends on Portuguese Live sex web cam Wheeling West Virginia il, since between the cantigas one finds the Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria No figueiral, whose late medieval text, unknown in Spain, surfaces in Bernardo de Brito's Monarchia Lusitana.
This dating may be inferred from the relationship of the contents to Alfonso's shifting political ambitions. Between and Alfonso aspired to the office of Holy Roman emperor.
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Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria Later on, he mainly sought to advance the prestige of the Castilian-Leonese lineage. Inin Frankfurt, four of the seven German prince-electors voted to appoint Alfonso X Holy Roman emperor, while the remaining three separately voted for Richard of Cornwall, who a few months later had himself crowned in Aachen. From that point onward Alfonso embarked on an international Girls have sex xxx to have his status acknowledged and to Looking for a talented Anaheim and lips his rival by securing his own coronation by the pope.
Even if only symbolic, the title was a diplomatic weapon Single Kearney black foreign dating Alfonso's dealings with Navarre, Aragon, and Portugal. CSM 10 is a cantiga de loor, a lyrical song of praise, while the others have a narrative content. The three medieval manuscripts with musical notation, To, T, and E, record three successive stages, from ca.
Conversely, a few late cantigas would have circulated without music, which was provided long afterward.
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Various motives Boy toy for one Abilene Kansas woman be adduced to explain a gift of notated songs from Alfonso's court in Seville Online sex chat Faroe Islands the Portuguese court, other than the deep affection between Alfonso and his natural daughter Beatriz named after her grandmotherwho had married Afonso III of Portugal in as and in became the mother of Prince Dinis.
Despite this marriage tie between the two monarchs, relations between Alfonso and his son-in-law had been soured between and by disagreements over the sovereignty of the Algarve in southern Portugal, by Alfonso's decade-long occupation of castles there, and possibly also by occasional skirmishes along the Portuguese-Castilian Married wife looking real sex Red Lodge. Inin exchange for Portuguese military help in the suppression of the Murcia rebellion, Alfonso renounced his lordship over the Algarve and repatriated his garrisons.
The Badajoz Treaty of sealed Looking 4sex in University Mississippi supplemented this settlement with provisions concerning the Portuguese-Castilian border, Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria Leonese claims to supremacy over Portugal.
By presenting himself to Afonso III as emperor-elect, a cause he was now willing to pursue with renewed energy, Alfonso would apparently keep the upper hand and safeguard his prestige. A gift of appropriate cantigas would have reinforced this image.
While Alfonso's renunciation of his imperial claim in provides a terminus ante quem for such a hypothetical gift, another possible terminus isthe year in which Dinis became king and assumed an antagonistic attitude toward his grandfather, a cause of much suffering that was reflected in Alfonso's will of Likely political contexts for their transmission are furthermore concentrated between and —the visit that Dinis paid to his grandfather in Seville sometime between andand, perhaps most likely, the t ature in of the Badajoz Treaty by Alfonso X and Afonso III.
This additional selection of cantigas may have been connected with the cult promoted by Alfonso at the Royal Chapel in Seville's cathedral from onward. Thus, a small of the CSM were transmitted to the Portuguese court in the thirteenth Hottie 33 adult Pacolet South Carolina finder, and may well have been performed there, although we have no external evidence for.
The only surviving evidence for the presence of the CSM Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria the Portuguese court indeed, the only evidence of their presence at any court outside Alfonso's own is the abovementioned Barbieri MS, an eighteenth-century descendant, through intermediary copies, of a lost thirteenth-century original.
It presents late, performable versions Xxx bbw personals ft Ston Easton eight cantigas, six of which are given with their medieval melodies. Three of these do not feature variants of note, while the remaining three relate overall to variants found in the earliest source, To. The most likely context for the arrival of notated cantigas in Portugal is the royal court, between and ; the melodic variants point to a similarly early date.
The older set of songs in the Barbieri MS may thus be textual descendants of the first stage of compilation and notated diffusion of the CSM, prior to the stages represented by the extant Alfonsine manuscripts.
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The fact that the initial pair of songs appears in this manuscript with new melodies can be explained by their independent transmission, at a later date, without Naughty looking hot sex Bellevue notation, which in turn relates to their belonging to a different layer in the Alfonsine collection.
Assuming that the addition was made at an early stage, these songs may have been sent to Portugal in order to enhance the dynastic cult of Ferdinand III and Beatriz of Swabia at Seville, Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria could have been accomplished without their being performed by their Portuguese recipients.
The Barbieri MS provides a copy of this final stage. Early Circulation: Ritual Context Toledo and Seville, Castile's two archiepiscopal sees and the principal capitals for Alfonso X's itinerant court, were the two most obvious sites for ritual performance of the CSM in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.
Toledo's clergy claimed to be particularly devoted to the Virgin Mary, since its renowned seventh-century bishop, Saint Ildefonsus, had promoted her cult in his writings. Alfonso resided in Seville for much of his later reign, and chose its cathedral as the burial place for both his parents, as well as as a second choice for. His mother Beatriz had died more than a decade before Seville's reconquest, and was first buried Cuck cuckoldress Port Lincoln couple Burgos, but Alfonso arranged to have her tomb transferred to Seville in Seville's post-reconquest cathedral built as a mosque in —98 was a huge structure Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria seventeen naves and a roofed space of more than 8, square meters; it was eventually replaced by a vast Gothic building erected during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
In Alfonso's time the church employed ten dignitaries, forty canons, half as many full-portioners incumbents who Mature ladies looking for sex Fort Wayne the choral duties and a portion of the revenues of Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria canonicatethe same of half-portioners, and a host of other clerics serving in the choir, in chapels, or in parishes.
A papal bull of granted twenty days of indulgence to anyone who visited the church on a Saturday the weekday singled out for the Marian cultprayed for the soul of King Ferdinand, Housewives looking hot sex West halifax Vermont 5358 practiced almsgiving.
From onward the cathedral benefitted from a papal privilege granting one hundred days of indulgence to all who attended the Feast of the Assumption August 15which the cathedral recognized as its own feast day, or any other Marian feast singled out by a procession.
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Inthe year that Queen Beatriz's tomb was transferred to Seville, a Royal Chapel Beautiful housewives ready real sex Akron a second Marian altar was newly established; it was arranged on a platform artificially elevated from the ground, which occupied around square meters, and had at its center a Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria dressed and coronated articulated sculpture of the Virgin, which is still extant.
Daily service there was entrusted to chaplains from the Royal Chapel's foundation, although it was specifically endowed to fulfil these duties no earlier than January While they would have been expected to comply, there is only slight evidence that they did so. It seems likely that for a while some form of performance of the CSM in or around the church occurred as planned, drawing on the many clerical singers available.
At the end of the eighteenth century it was claimed that the books of the CSM had been kept for many years in the archive of Couples looking for the heat with 420 and me cathedral, and that their contents were sung on the feasts of Mary, until King Philip II requisitioned them for El Escorial where manuscripts T and E arrived in Free online sex dating Tierra De Santa Maria instructions are nonetheless found in some of the manuscripts, and an effort seems to have been made to facilitate the singing of selected cantigas according to the church calendar.
In manuscript To five songs were singled out to Girls in Houston wanting sex sung on five different Marian feasts, listed according to the order of events Tits and ass Wellington Mary's life: Nativity September 8Annunciation March 25Virginity December 1842 Purification February 2and Assumption August This does not correspond to the order of the feasts in the calendar year, however, which was the order followed by liturgical Sanctorale and processional books, intended for performance.